Enable Logging for firewalld

Enabling logging on firewall rules can be beneficial for tracking why a certain rule is not behaving as you intended.

Enabling logging is relatively straight forward.

  • Enable Firewall Logging
  • Check Logs
  • Disable Firewall Logging (Optional)

Enable Firewall Logging

Quickest way to enable logging is to run

sudo firewall-cmd --set-log-denied=all

This changes the options in the /etc/firewalld/firewalld.conf config file. Options include all, unicast, broadcast, multicast, and off

Enable Log option for firewalld

The command also reloads the firewall so manually restarting the firewall is necessary.

Checking Logs

You can use dmesg to view the failed attempts or you can follow the messages log and filter to just show the rejects

sudo tail -f /var/log/messages | grep -i REJECT

You can now try to access the server or run a test to trigger a log event. In my case I tried initiating a SSH connection.

Oct  1 16:32:10 localhost kernel: FINAL_REJECT: IN=eno1 OUT= MAC=f8:ab:98:12:fe:11:a1:ec:a6:00:67:3e:97:00 SRC=192.168.1.1 DST=192.168.88.2 LEN=60 TOS=0x08 PREC=0x40 TTL=59 ID=43080 DF PROTO=TCP SPT=38192 DPT=22 WINDOW=52240 RES=0x00 SYN URGP=0

Interesting bits are bolded. Our destination port it 22 “ssh” and our source address is 192.168.1.1. If I want this IP to access the server, I’ll need to add the 192.168.1.1 IP range in the allowed IP ranges.

Disable Logging (Optional)

After you have finished troubleshooting your problem, you may want to turn the logging feature off so you don’t fill up the logs with failed entries.

You can turn it off with

sudo firewall-cmd --set-log-denied=off

We can verify that logging is off by running

sudo firewall-cmd --get-log-denied 

If the firewall logging option is off it will return “off”

The following site has some more information and alternative ways

https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/enable-firewalld-logging-for-denied-packets-on-linux/

Troubleshooting DNS CPU Usage on Mikrotik Router

Problem : Lots of CPU utilization. Profile shows a good bit of it is DNS related.

DNS eating CPU on Router

The router is setup to allow DNS to pass through to web servers so rDNS and other records can be looked up and resolved. This is a specific IP block that gets it’s addresses from the router. The firewall rules explicitly allow this address range. We’ll say 192.168.88.0/24, and blocks everything else. This works for the web servers. But why are we still getting a bunch of CPU utilization with DNS?

As it turns out, the firewall rule that allows the server address range also includes routers own address! So we have unintentionally whitelisted DNS access to our router.

To resolve the issue we can add another firewall rule that explicitly blocks DNS traffic to the routers IP address. We are using two rules, one to block TCP and the other UDP.

ip firewall filter add chain=input dst-address=192.168.88.1 protocol=6 dst-port=53 in-interface-list=WAN action=drop
ip firewall filter add chain=input dst-address=192.168.88.1 protocol=17 dst-port=53 in-interface-list=WAN action=drop

Rules 6 & 7 are the two new rules we just applied. 14 & 15 block input to the router, however rules 8 & 9 inadvertently allowed access to the router’s public IP.

Firewall Rules for Router

The Result? Our CPU usage dropped!

CPU Usage dropped after adding DNS firewall rules.

Quite dramatically too as the following LibreNMS screenshot shows.

LibreNMS CPU graph showing the overall CPU utilization improvement

For more information about DNS Amplification attacks, refer to the following links.

https://ask.wireshark.org/question/6865/dns-amplification-attack/
https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/237127/why-would-hackers-attack-a-dns-server-with-a-dos

Email error – The certificate does not match the expected identity of the site that it was retrieved from.

The certificate does not match the expected identity of the site that it was retrieved from.
The server's identity does not match the identity in the certificate
Hostname in certificate didn't match

The reason for the above errors are due to the fact that the email client is trying to use mail.mydomain.com and the email server is mail.emailserver.com.

So the email client pulls the certificate for mail.emailserver.com and reads that this certificate is for mail.emailserver.com, NOT for mail.mydomain.com. Hence the conflict and it throws an error.

If you can, accepting the certificate should let everything work. It appears that on recent versions of iOS their may be some problems trusting it. The other work around is to use the actual mail server host. So mail.emailserver.com

Hydra – Socket error: Connection reset by peer

[VERBOSE] Disabled child 2 because of too many errors
[VERBOSE] Disabled child 6 because of too many errors
[ERROR] could not connect to target port 22: Socket error: Connection reset by peer
[ERROR] could not connect to target port 22: Socket error: Connection reset by peer
[ERROR] could not connect to target port 22: Socket error: Connection reset by peer
[ERROR] could not connect to target port 22: Socket error: Connection reset by peer
[ERROR] ssh protocol error

Looks like the issue can happen if you have too many threads going at once. Lower the amount of threads your using with -t. Recommended amount for ssh is 4.

hydra -L usernames.txt  -P "passwords.txt" 192.168.1.20 ssh -t4

Hashcat examples

Rule based attack

Use a wordlist and best64 rules to try and crack a wordpress hash. Using rockyou.txt as an example.

-m Specifies the hash type

hashcat -m 400 wordpress.hash -r rules/best64.rule wordlist/rockyou.txt

wordpress.hash is a text file that contains the password hash. You can list multiple hashes in the file

Example contents of file

bob@localhost:~$ cat wordpress.hash 
$P$BeJ2ZWVgSx/rR8ifcTFyjq1ouCCWwu0
bob@localhost:~$

Brute force

Attempt every 8 numeric combination for a WPA2 key.

hashcat -m 2500 -a3 capture.hccapx ?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d

Hashcat built in Charsets

You can swap out the ?d from the above command with any of the built in character sets below.

  ? | Charset
 ===+=========
  l | abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz
  u | ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ
  d | 0123456789
  h | 0123456789abcdef
  H | 0123456789ABCDEF
  s |  !"#$%&'()*+,-./:;<=>?@[\]^_`{|}~
  a | ?l?u?d?s
  b | 0x00 - 0xff

More information
https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=cracking_wpawpa2
Rule based attacks are recommended
https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=rule_based_attack

Check if Mikrotik is an Open DNS Resolver

https://www.openresolver.com

You can test if a router is acting as an open DNS resolver by running the following command from a Linux terminal. If you need to install dig, refer to here for Debian/Ubuntu and here for RPM/CentOS/Fedora Distros.

Replace 192.168.88.1 with the host you want to test against.

dig +short test.openresolver.com TXT @192.168.88.1

If you receive the following

"open-resolver-detected"

The router is acting as an open resolver.

If you get

;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached

Then you are unable to use that router to resolve DNS.

Example running the command against a Mikrotik router with Remote DNS turned on Then adding a firewall rule to block unwanted request.

bob@localhost:~$ dig +short test.openresolver.com TXT @192.168.88.1
"open-resolver-detected"
bob@localhost:~$ 
<<-- Put firewall rule on router -->>
bob@localhost:~$ dig +short test.openresolver.com TXT @192.168.88.1
;; connection timed out; no servers could be reached  
bob@localhost:~$ 

Extra notes

If you have firewall rules allowing your IP address to use the router for DNS, then the above command to test will show it as an Open Resolver. Ideally you would want a connection from the outside to test. Or you can use this link and test it from the website. https://www.openresolver.com

Crack LUKS volume with Hashcat

Install hashcat

apt install hashcat

Find LUKS Volume

bob@localhost:~/$ dmesg
...
[ 1057.776074] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write Protect is off
[ 1057.776074] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Mode Sense: 43 00 00 00
[ 1057.776593] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Write cache: enabled, read cache: enabled, doesn't support DPO or FUA
[ 1057.780234]  sda: sda1
[ 1057.783346] sd 0:0:0:0: [sda] Attached SCSI removable disk
bob@localhost:~/$

From the above we see that the drive we just pluGged into the system is “sda” so our path and partition is “/dev/sda1”

Run hashcat

The following command will run hashcat against “/dev/sda1”, change if the encrypted partition is different. Mode is to brute force every 8 numeric character combination. Refer to the following link to learn more about mask attacks.
https://hashcat.net/wiki/doku.php?id=mask_attack

Note: You should be able to dump the header and work off of that as well.

sudo hashcat -a 3 -m 14600 /dev/sda1 ?d?d?d?d?d?d?d?d

Create LUKS Encrypted Thumb Drive

Find the thumb drive with lsblk, dmesg, or sudo fdisk -l. In the following examples we are using /dev/sdc1, replace as needed.

sudo cryptsetup --verbose --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/sdc1
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdc1 encrypted_usb
sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/encrypted_usb

Now we can mount the drive. We are mounting it to /mnt change if needed.

sudo mount /dev/mapper/encrypted_usb /mnt

Or go ahead and close the channel and remove the drive

sudo cryptsetup luksClose /dev/mapper/encrypted_usb

Command Explanation

sudo cryptsetup --verbose --verify-passphrase luksFormat /dev/sdc1

Wipe /dev/sdc1 and set the password when prompted for it.

sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdc1 encrypted_usb

Open up a secure channel to the drive, and decrypt it so we can access it

sudo mkfs.ext4 /dev/mapper/encrypted_usb

Using the channel we created in the previous command, we can now format the drive.

sudo cryptsetup luksClose /dev/mapper/encrypted_usb

We can now close the channel for the drive and remove it.

Extract encrypted Signal backup

https://github.com/xeals/signal-back
More information at the above link

Installation of precompiled binary for Signal-Back

wget https://github.com/xeals/signal-back/releases/download/v0.1.7-alpha.2/signal-back_linux_amd64
chmod +x signal-back_linux_amd64
./signal-back_linux_amd64

Help info

Usage: signal-back_linux_amd64 COMMAND [OPTION…] BACKUPFILE
   --help, -h     show help
   --version, -v  print the version
 Commands: 
   format   Read and format the backup file
   analyse  Information about the backup file
   extract  Retrieve attachments from the backup
   check    Verify that a backup is readable
   help     Shows a list of commands or help for one command

Extract attachments from backup

Replace ~/Desktop/signal…backup with the path to your Signal backup.

./signal-back_linux_amd64 extract ~/Desktop/signal-2019-09-30-01-43-21.backup

It’ll ask for the password and then start pulling out the attachments and putting them in the current directory.

Export messages to CSV file

Default option is XML. CSV will let you open it up in Excel.

./signal-back_linux_amd64 format -f CSV --output signal-output.csv ~/Desktop/signal-2019-09-30-01-43-21.backup

Specify password to use

You can use the -p option to specify the password. It does not matter if there are spaces every 5 numbers or not. Also the -P option is suppose to let you use a file.

./signal-back_linux_amd64 extract -p "48294 55709 09123 94563 74662 12800" ~/Desktop/signal-2019-09-30-01-43-21.backup

Other help options

bob@localhost:~/Downloads/signal-back$ ./signal-back_linux_amd64 help
 Usage: signal-back_linux_amd64 COMMAND [OPTION…] BACKUPFILE
 --help, -h     show help
   --version, -v  print the version
 Commands:
   format   Read and format the backup file
   analyse  Information about the backup file
   extract  Retrieve attachments from the backup
   check    Verify that a backup is readable
   help     Shows a list of commands or help for one command
bob@localhost:~/Downloads/signal-back$ ./signal-back_linux_amd64 help format
 Usage: signal-back_linux_amd64 format [OPTION…] BACKUPFILE
 Parse and transform the backup file into other formats.
 Valid formats include: CSV, XML, RAW.
 --format FORMAT, -f FORMAT  output the backup as FORMAT (default: "xml")
   --message TYPE, -m TYPE     format TYPE messages (default: "sms")
   --output FILE, -o FILE      write decrypted format to FILE
   --password PASS, -p PASS    use PASS as password for backup file
   --pwdfile FILE, -P FILE     read password from FILE
   --verbose, -v               enable verbose logging output
bob@localhost:~/Downloads/signal-back$ ./signal-back_linux_amd64 help extract
 Usage: signal-back_linux_amd64 extract [OPTION…] BACKUPFILE
 Decrypt files embedded in the backup.
 --outdir DIRECTORY, -o DIRECTORY  output attachments to DIRECTORY
   --password PASS, -p PASS          use PASS as password for backup file
   --pwdfile FILE, -P FILE           read password from FILE
   --verbose, -v                     enable verbose logging output
bob@localhost:~/Downloads/signal-back$ 

Convert Kismet NetXML capture to CSV

First download the following python script which we’ll use to convert the Kismet NetXML file.

https://github.com/MichaelCaraccio/NetXML-to-CSV

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/MichaelCaraccio/NetXML-to-CSV/master/main.py

You should now be able to run the script with.

python main.py 

Help output for NetXML to CSV

bob@localhost:~$ python main.py  
Usage: main.py <NetXML File> <oUTPUT File Name> <Filter> (Filter is optional)
bob@localhost:~$

Usage

python main.py Kismet-file-input.netxml Kismet-csv-output.csv

Example of converting file.

bob@localhost:~$ python main.py Kismet-20191023-12-50-42.netxml Kismet-20191023-12-50-42.csv

You can now import the csv into Google Earth.