Upgrade to the latest version of Chia on Ubuntu

https://github.com/Chia-Network/chia-blockchain/wiki/INSTALL#ubuntudebian

While upgrading Chia on Linux is not as simple as on Windows, it is still relatively easy.

First we need to stop the Chia service

Open up a terminal, navigate to the chia-blockchain folder, and stop the services

cd chia-blockchain
. ./activate
chia stop -d all
deactivate

Now we will need to download the latest files using git.

git fetch
git checkout latest
git reset --hard FETCH_HEAD

Now that we have the latest files, we can install the new version.

sh install.sh
. ./activate
chia init

Upgrade GUI

Upgrading the GUI is similar to the above process. Should be able to copy and paste the following commands.

cd chia-blockchain-gui
git fetch
cd ..
chmod +x ./install-gui.sh
./install-gui.sh
cd chia-blockchain-gui
npm run electron &

The last command will launch Chia GUI.

Simple SH Ping script to scan a /24

This is a very simple ping script I created to run on a remote UniFi device to scan for other IP addresses on it’s network. It works on SH environments as well as Bash.

Paste the script in a ping.sh file and then

chmod +x ping.sh

run like so, replacing 192.168.1. with the IP range you want to scan.

sh ping.sh 192.168.1.

#!/bin/sh
# simple ping scan utility

# i.e. 192.168.0.
ipFirstPart=$1

ip=0
while [ $ip -ne 255 ] 
do 
  ip=$(($ip+1))
  ping -w1 $ipFirstPart${ip} | grep "64 bytes from"
done

LibreNMS Error – port_groups Base table or view already exists

port_groups issue upgrading LibreNMS

The above error can be resolved by dropping the port_groups table in mysql. You may double check that there is no information in the table. I checked this instance and it didn’t have any data in the table so I dropped it with

drop table port_groups;

I then ran the lnms command again and it created the table and started migrating.

Chia Plotting Phases

Some helpful links regarding plotting, optimizations, and efficiency.

Helpful charts showing resources used while plotting chia
More information on improving plotting efficiency

https://www.chia.net/2021/02/22/plotting-basics.html

The first phase generates all of your proofs of space by creating seven tables of cryptographic hashes and saving them to your temporary directory. Phase 2 back-propagates through the hashes, phase 3 sorts and algorithmically compress these hashes in the temporary directory while starting to build the final file and phase 4 completes the file and moves it into your final plot destination.

There are 4 phases when plotting Chia. Lets break these down

Phase 1

Phase 1 according to the link above creates 7 tables of cryptographic hashes and puts them in a temp directory. This phase is CPU intensive and is the only phase that takes advantage of multiple cores/threads. All the succeeding phases are single threaded. This phase also looks to use the most memory.

Phase 2

Phase 2 back propagates through the hashes, what this means exactly, I am not sure. This phase will use the most storage space. Phase 2 also seems to be a good time to start another plot if your plotting in parallel. Plotman by default starts another plot when a plot reaches phase 2:1 (:1 is a minor phase within phase 2)

Phase 3

Phase 3 sorts and compresses the hashes and starts building the final plot file. The total temp storage should decrease throughout the entire phase.

Phase 4

Phase 4 completes the plot file and moves it to the destination. It looks like if something happens with the destination you can manually move the 2.plot.tmp file to .plot and copy it to a destination file.

Using sed to format a phone number

Formatting an unformated “phone” number using sed.

There may be a different and easier way to do this, but the main thing to learn here is the ^, $, and [[:digit:]] options.

^ refers to the first part of a line
& which is our searched for pattern
$ refers to an end part of the line
[[:digit:]] searches for, you guessed it. Digits!

The following command reads the incoming 10 digit number form echo and does the following.

the ^ tells it that the pattern needs to match at the beginning of the line
[[:digit:]] repeated tells it to search for three consecutive digits
(&) tells it to put brackets around the & which is our searched for pattern in the first part.
We then pipe that to another sed command which
searches for 4 consecutive digits
the $ tells it that it needs to be at the end of the line.

echo "1234567890" | sed -e 's/^[[:digit:]][[:digit:]][[:digit:]]/(&) /g' | sed -e 's/[[:digit:]][[:digit:]][[:digit:]][[:digit:]]$/-&/g'

Resulting output is

(123) 456-7890

The following link was helpful while searching what the ^ and $ options do.

https://www.computerhope.com/unix/used.htm

Install Plotman on Ubuntu Harvester

Plotman is a great way to semi automate plot creation. It can manage all your temp and destination directories as well as spacing out plots for parallel plotting.

Prerequisites

Install Chia Blockchain

If you need to install Chia, visit Install Chia Blockchain on Ubuntu

Install Pip

sudo apt install python3-pip

Installing Plotman

Use pip to install Plotman

pip install --force-reinstall git+https://github.com/ericaltendorf/plotman@main

It will download all the correct files and set everything up. If you run into any issues, check for any errors on the terminal.

After it finishes installing, lets run “plotman version” to verify that it is working

(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$ plotman version
plotman 0.3.1
(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$

Configure Plotman config file

First lets generate a config that we will then edit. Use the “plotman config generate” command. It by default puts the config in ~/.config/plotman/plotman.yaml

(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$ plotman config generate
Wrote default plotman.yaml to: /home/plotter/.config/plotman/plotman.yaml
(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$

Use your favorite text editor to open up the config file. Nano is a easy to use terminal text editor.

nano ~/.config/plotman/plotman.yaml

Changes we need to make

  1. Change log directory (Line 18)
  2. Set tmp directories i.e. where temp plot files go (Line 27)
  3. Set dst (Destination) directories (Line 54)
  4. Disable archive or setup (Line 67)
  5. Change scheduling options (i.e. parallel plotting) (Line 86)
  6. Add Farmer and Pool keys (Optional) (Line 117)

I will put a full config at the bottom of this post with the important settings in bold.

A note about the config file. The config files uses a yaml format which is picky about indentation and how things work. If you run into an error and can’t figure out what is up, the easiest thing to do may be to delete the config and regenerate it.

Change log directory

Change username to your Ubuntu username. Plotman should create the logs directory if it is not created.

     log: /home/username/logs

Setup tmp directories

The tmp directories are the folders where the temporary plot files are created. Ideally each line should be a path to a physical ssd. Change the path to your SSD. If you have more, then add more lines. Note the – is needed in front.

       tmp:
                - /media/username/ssd

Set up destination directories

The destination directories are our drives that hold our plots. Same idea as our tmp drive setup above, but you’ll need to add the path to all your destination drives. Below is an example of how I have some set up.

    dst:
            - /mnt/chia0
            - /mnt/chia1
            - /mnt/chia2
            - /mnt/chia3
            - /mnt/chia4
            - /mnt/chia5

Configuring Archive (Optional)

You can configure the archive settings so that when a plot finishes it can copy it over the network. I am not using this feature at the moment so just add a # to the first part of the line to comment it out.

#    archive:
#           rsyncd_module: plots # Define this in remote rsyncd.conf.
#           rsyncd_path: /plots # This is used via ssh. Should match path
#                               # defined in the module referenced above.
#           rsyncd_bwlimit: 80000  # Bandwidth limit in KB/s
#           rsyncd_host: myfarmer
#           rsyncd_user: chia

Scheduling!

Now this is the confusing part, but don’t worry! I’ll do my best to explain what is going on to the best of my knowledge. The defaults do work, but this is where the tuning is going to create the most Plots per day. Below I put in bold the options we’ll want to look at and then we’ll go through those options and explain what they mean.

scheduling:
# Run a job on a particular temp dir only if the number of existing jobs
# before [tmpdir_stagger_phase_major : tmpdir_stagger_phase_minor]
# is less than tmpdir_stagger_phase_limit.
# Phase major corresponds to the plot phase, phase minor corresponds to
# the table or table pair in sequence, phase limit corresponds to
# the number of plots allowed before [phase major : phase minor].
# e.g, with default settings, a new plot will start only when your plot
# reaches phase [2 : 1] on your temp drive. This setting takes precidence
    # over global_stagger_m
    tmpdir_stagger_phase_major: 2
    tmpdir_stagger_phase_minor: 1
    # Optional: default is 1
    tmpdir_stagger_phase_limit: 1
    # Don't run more than this many jobs at a time on a single temp dir.
    tmpdir_max_jobs: 3

    # Don't run more than this many jobs at a time in total.
    global_max_jobs: 12

    # Don't run any jobs (across all temp dirs) more often than this, in minutes.
    global_stagger_m: 30

    # How often the daemon wakes to consider starting a new plot job, in seconds.
    polling_time_s: 20

The first two options

    tmpdir_stagger_phase_major: 2
    tmpdir_stagger_phase_minor: 1

Are what plotman uses to figure out when to start the next plot. I’ll see about posting some info soon about the different phases a plot goes through, but there are phases 1:1 – 4:something, so when the first plot phase hits 2:1, it will launch another parallel plot.

This is helpful because the different phases use different portions of a system, first phase is multi threaded and uses more CPU, where as other phases can use more storage. So by waiting for a plot to hit a certain phase before launching another plot can increase the efficiency of the computers components.

The next option is

    tmpdir_stagger_phase_limit: 1

This is how many plotting jobs you can have running before the major:minor phases (Above options). By default it is 1. Meaning that plotman launches a job, once that job hits phase 2:1, it launches another job, once that new job hits 2:1, it launches a 3rd job, so you have 3 jobs running. But only one of those jobs is pre 2:1 phase.

tmpdir_max_jobs

The following option

    tmpdir_max_jobs: 3

is the limit on how many jobs can run on a single tmp directory. If you are using a 2TB NVME SSD for plotting, you will probably want to increase this to allow up to 6-8 (maybe more?) jobs to run at the same time. Note that a 1TB SSD is is going to be limited to about 4 plots, maybe 5 if you were super precise with your timing. I have been running 4 though.

global_max_jobs: 12

This option is the total jobs limit. This number will probably be dependent on CPU, RAM, and SSD(s). This guy has some helpful information for calculating that out. I will say I don’t think you want to exceed your CPU thread count. So if you have a Ryzen 5600X, I would not go more then 12 jobs just from a CPU perspective.

    global_stagger_m: 30

This option is how many minutes to wait before starting a new job. 30 minutes seems like a good number so you can probably leave it. The previous options do override this though. So if your above setting for the phase_limit is 1, and it takes 1 hour for a plot to go from 1:1 to 2:1, then it will be starting a new job every hour. Or whenever the job gets past 2:1.

Add Farmer and Pool keys

Almost there! The following options are optional, but if you are running a harvester and generating plots for a different node, you’ll probably want to update the farmer_pk and pool_pk

   farmer_pk: biglongfarmerkey
   pool_pk: biglongpoolkey

Save the file. You should now have a good plotman config file to work from.

Running Plotman

Tip: Plotman launches the jobs in the background, so if you need to make a config change, kill plotman with ctrl+c and edit the config. When you relaunch plotman, it will scan for the existing jobs and pick up from there.

To start plotman type

plotman plot

The output should be like the following.

(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$ plotman plot
…starting plot loop
…sleeping 20 s: (True, 'Starting plot job: chia plots create -k 32 -r 2 -u 128 -b 3389 -t /mnt/chia3/tmp -d /mnt/chia5 -f biglongfarmerkeyafj82gj84g0g93 -p biglongpoolkeya8f3923g902g4 ; logging to /home/plotter/logs/2021-05-27T17_24_54.872811+00_00.log')

Monitoring

Plotman -h offers a bunch of helpful options. One of which is plotman status which will list active jobs. Side note that it shows the phase a job is in.

(venv) plotter@chia1:~/chia-blockchain$ plotman status
plot id k tmp dst wall phase tmp pid stat mem user sys io
1569c6a8 32 /mnt/chia3/tmp /mnt/chia5 0:07 1:2 39G 26063 SLP 4.0G 0:07 0:01 0s

Another handy one is plotman details {plot id}

plotman details 1569c6a8 
 Namespace(cmd='details', idprefix=['1569c6a8'])
 b60c6266a8222aff959591c72dee93d09056b20a661898dd009ada0c
 k=32 r=2 b=3389 u=128
 pid:21093
 tmp:/mnt/chia3/tmp
 tmp2:None
 dst:/mnt/chia5
 logfile:/home/plotter/logs/2021-05-26T17_22_34.842811+00_00.log

Plotman Config file

# Default/example plotman.yaml configuration file

# Options for display and rendering
user_interface:
        # Call out to the `stty` program to determine terminal size, instead of
        # relying on what is reported by the curses library.   In some cases,
        # the curses library fails to update on SIGWINCH signals.  If the
        # `plotman interactive` curses interface does not properly adjust when
        # you resize the terminal window, you can try setting this to True.
        use_stty_size: True

# Where to plot and log.
directories:
        # One directory in which to store all plot job logs (the STDOUT/
        # STDERR of all plot jobs).  In order to monitor progress, plotman
        # reads these logs on a regular basis, so using a fast drive is
        # recommended.
        log: /home/plotter/logs

        # One or more directories to use as tmp dirs for plotting.  The
        # scheduler will use all of them and distribute jobs among them.
        # It assumes that IO is independent for each one (i.e., that each
        # one is on a different physical device).
        #
        # If multiple directories share a common prefix, reports will
        # abbreviate and show just the uniquely identifying suffix.
        tmp:
                - /mnt/chia0/tmp

        # Optional: Allows overriding some characteristics of certain tmp
        # directories. This contains a map of tmp directory names to
        # attributes. If a tmp directory and attribute is not listed here,
        # it uses the default attribute setting from the main configuration.
        #
        # Currently support override parameters:
        #     - tmpdir_max_jobs
        tmp_overrides:
                # In this example, /mnt/tmp/00 is larger than the other tmp
                # dirs and it can hold more plots than the default.
                "/mnt/tmp/00":
                        tmpdir_max_jobs: 5

        # Optional: tmp2 directory.  If specified, will be passed to
        # chia plots create as -2.  Only one tmp2 directory is supported.
        # tmp2: /mnt/tmp/a

        # One or more directories; the scheduler will use all of them.
        # These again are presumed to be on independent physical devices,
        # so writes (plot jobs) and reads (archivals) can be scheduled
        # to minimize IO contention.
        dst:
                - /mnt/chia0
                - /mnt/chia1
                - /mnt/chia2
                - /mnt/chia3
                - /mnt/chia4
                - /mnt/chia5

        # Archival configuration.  Optional; if you do not wish to run the
        # archiving operation, comment this section out.
        #
        # Currently archival depends on an rsync daemon running on the remote
        # host.
        # The archival also uses ssh to connect to the remote host and check
        # for available directories. Set up ssh keys on the remote host to
        # allow public key login from rsyncd_user.
        # Complete example: https://github.com/ericaltendorf/plotman/wiki/Archiving
        archive:
                rsyncd_module: plots # Define this in remote rsyncd.conf.
                rsyncd_path: /plots # This is used via ssh. Should match path
                                    # defined in the module referenced above.
                rsyncd_bwlimit: 80000  # Bandwidth limit in KB/s
                rsyncd_host: myfarmer
                rsyncd_user: chia
                # Optional index.  If omitted or set to 0, plotman will archive
                # to the first archive dir with free space.  If specified,
                # plotman will skip forward up to 'index' drives (if they exist).
                # This can be useful to reduce io contention on a drive on the
                # archive host if you have multiple plotters (simultaneous io
                # can still happen at the time a drive fills up.)  E.g., if you
                # have four plotters, you could set this to 0, 1, 2, and 3, on
                # the 4 machines, or 0, 1, 0, 1.
                #   index: 0


# Plotting scheduling parameters
scheduling:
        # Run a job on a particular temp dir only if the number of existing jobs
        # before [tmpdir_stagger_phase_major : tmpdir_stagger_phase_minor]
        # is less than tmpdir_stagger_phase_limit.
        # Phase major corresponds to the plot phase, phase minor corresponds to
        # the table or table pair in sequence, phase limit corresponds to
        # the number of plots allowed before [phase major : phase minor].
        # e.g, with default settings, a new plot will start only when your plot
        # reaches phase [2 : 1] on your temp drive. This setting takes precidence
        # over global_stagger_m
        tmpdir_stagger_phase_major: 2
        tmpdir_stagger_phase_minor: 1
        # Optional: default is 1
        tmpdir_stagger_phase_limit: 1

        # Don't run more than this many jobs at a time on a single temp dir.
        tmpdir_max_jobs: 3

        # Don't run more than this many jobs at a time in total.
        global_max_jobs: 6

        # Don't run any jobs (across all temp dirs) more often than this, in minutes.
        global_stagger_m: 30

        # How often the daemon wakes to consider starting a new plot job, in seconds.
        polling_time_s: 20


# Plotting parameters.  These are pass-through parameters to chia plots create.
# See documentation at
# https://github.com/Chia-Network/chia-blockchain/wiki/CLI-Commands-Reference#create
plotting:
        k: 32
        e: False             # Use -e plotting option
        n_threads: 2         # Threads per job
        n_buckets: 128       # Number of buckets to split data into
        job_buffer: 3389     # Per job memory
        # If specified, pass through to the -f and -p options.  See CLI reference.
        farmer_pk: farmerkey
        pool_pk: poolkey 

Chia Harvester start script for Ubuntu

This is a basic script for starting the Chia Harvester on Ubuntu. You can download the script here or use the following commands to download with wget.

wget https://incredigeek.com/home/downloads/ChiaScripts/StartHarvester.sh
chmod +x StartHarvester.sh
./StartHarvester.sh

Here is the script contents.

#!/bin/bash

# Script for starting the Chia Harvester

cd ~/chia-blockchain/
. ./activate
chia start harvester

sleep 5

if ( echo $(ps aux | grep -v grep | grep chia_harvester) | grep chia_harvester); then 
    echo "Harvester started"
else
    echo "Looks like the harvester is not running, try manually checking and/or running the commands to figure out what is wrong."
fi

Ping multiple IP addresses to see if they are up or down

An easy way to do this is by using fping. fping is a little bit easier ping utility to use then normal ping when trying to verify that a host is actually down.

By default fping returns if a host is “alive” or “unreachable”

Example:

$ fping 192.168.1.4
192.168.1.4 is alive

Or for a host that is down it returns something like the following

$ fping 192.168.1.5
ICMP Host Unreachable from 192.168.1.2 for ICMP Echo sent to 192.168.1.5
ICMP Host Unreachable from 192.168.1.2 for ICMP Echo sent to 192.168.1.5
ICMP Host Unreachable from 192.168.1.2 for ICMP Echo sent to 192.168.1.5
ICMP Host Unreachable from 192.168.1.2 for ICMP Echo sent to 192.168.1.5
192.168.1.5 is unreachable

You can adjust the retry rate with the -r option, default is 3 which it has multiple of the Host Unreachable lines. Changing it to 1 or 2 gets rid of those lines so it just shows that the host is unreachable.

$ fping -r 1 192.168.1.5
192.168.1.5 is unreachable

Ping multiple addresses

Fortunately pinging multiple addresses with fping is as easy as adding them to the end of the command. For example

fping -r1 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.2

will ping both the specified addresses one after the other and print the results to the terminal.

Example:

$ fping -r 192.168.1.1 192.168.1.10 192.168.1.45  
192.168.1.1 is alive
192.168.1.10 is alive
192.168.1.45 is unreachable

Give Linux user access (Write) to Hard Drives

This is fairly straight forward to resolve. You can run the following command and replace /media/username/drive with the path to your drive.

sudo chmod ugo+wx /media/username/drive

If you need to locate the path to your drive, try running

lsblk

It should show all the hard drives mount points

https://askubuntu.com/questions/90339/how-do-i-set-read-write-permissions-my-hard-drives

Disable Telemetry for DotNet SDK

First option is to open a Power Shell or Command Prompt and type, think it may need to be an admin prompt.

set DOTNET_CLI_TELEMETRY_OPTOUT=1

As a secondary option you should also be able to do this from the GUI by doing the following.

Search for Environment Variables

Windows Environment Variables

Edit Environment Variables

Edit Environment Variables

Create Variable named DOTNET_CLI_TELEMETRY_OPTOUT

with a Variable value of 1

Create Windows Dot Net CLI Telemetry Opt Out variable

Save by Hitting OK and OK again.