Dual Zones in Firewalld (Public/Private or External/Internal)

In Firewalld we can use multiple zones for different types of traffic. For instance, we can setup an “internal” zone with our local IP addresses that are trusted, and then setup the public facing interface to the “drop” or “block” zone to block everything not from our internal network.

  1. Setup trusted IP addresses in the “internal” zone
  2. Configure services/ports that should be allowed on our “internal” zone
  3. Set “drop” zone as the default for all other traffic
  4. Reload firewall

1. Setup trusted IP addresses in “internal” zone

Add all of our trusted IP addresses to the internal zone. The following example adds all of the private IP addresses “RFC 1918” to the internal zone. Change as needed.

firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-source=192.168.0.0/16 --add-source=172.16.0.0/12 --add-source=10.0.0.0/8 --permanent

2. Configure services/ports that should be allowed on our “internal” zone

Next we need to specify which services or ports should be accessible in our trusted zone.

Here is an example to allow https, ssh, and cockpit services

firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-service=https --add-service=ssh --add-service=cockpit --permanent 

Here is an example to allow port 8080 tcp

firewall-cmd --zone=internal --add-port=8080/tcp --permanent

3. Set “drop” zone as the default for all other traffic

The final configuration piece we need to do is set the default zone. Anything not specified in other zones will get processed by the default zone.

firewall-cmd --set-default-zone=drop

The drop zone drops everything.

4. Reload firewall

Reload the firewall with

firewall-cmd --reload


Verifying changes

Let’s verify the changes with the firewall-cmd –get-active-zones command

# firewall-cmd --get-active-zones
drop
  interfaces: en0
internal
  sources: 192.168.0.0/16 172.16.0.0/12 10.0.0.0/8

You can also use

firewall-cmd --list-all-zones

to list all the zones. Active zones show (active) next to them.

You can verify that your changes worked by doing an internal and external nmap scan.

If you have issues with services still being accessible from the outside, try disabling Network Manager for that specific interface

You can edit the ifcfg-eth0 file and add

NM_CONTROLLED=no

How to Allow a Port Through Firewalld

Note: If you have SELinux enabled you’ll need to allow the port in semanage.

Basic syntax

 firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=(port number)/(protocal)

So the command to allow port 80 through the firewall would be

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=http/tcp
or
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=80/tcp

The above command only works for the running instance of firewalld. ¬†If you want to add the port permanetely you need to run the above command and then run it again with “–permanent” added to the end of the command.

example:

firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=http/tcp
firewall-cmd --zone=public --add-port=http/tcp --permanent